Skafte flintkniver

Lurer du på hvor skaffe, hva bruke etc... Vel her er lekegrindda.
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MalaWolf
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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 20 feb 2012, 19:42

arky skrev:Ingen hast for min del :) Går ganske fort å lage knivene, fin prokrastineringsaktivitet :) Hvilken kniv vil du helst ha foresten?
Den største :)
Har fått fatt på noen fin fine pyrittbiter også. Så da er det bare å få sydd skinnposen igjen .. tenkte jeg skulle slå sytråd av lindebast. Har endel lindebast igjen fra i fjor sommer.

arky
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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av arky » 20 feb 2012, 21:15

Gleder meg til å se de :) pm meg adressen din så skal jeg sende kniven snarest!

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Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 21 feb 2012, 00:25

Da er det klart :)
Pose av hjerngarvet hjortkalv, røkt over bålet i lavvoen til Christian. Sydd med selvslått tråd av lindebast. Kjuke fra Lier og pyritt fra området her ... og flint fra Ula i Vestfold :)
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MalaWolf
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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 21 feb 2012, 01:07

Apropos flint og pyritt :

FindArticles / Reference / Antiquity / Dec, 1999

Flint and pyrite: making fire in the Stone Age
by Dick Stapert, Lykke Johansen

Introduction

The domestication of fire must be ranked among the key `revolutions' in prehistory. The sociologist Goudsblom (1992) has drawn attention to the fact that of the main attributes of `civilization' -- tool-use, language and control of fire -- only one, control of fire, is beyond dispute exclusively human. Many publications have discussed the use and production of fire in prehistoric and historical times (to name a few important ones: Hough 1926; 1928; Birket-Smith 1929; Harrison 1958; Oakley 1955; Perles 1977; Pyne 1995; Collina-Girard 1998). Many authors have suggested two stages in the domestication of fire: the `age of fire used' and the `age of fire kindled' (after Frazer 1930). We do not know when ways to produce fire were first invented, but it is reasonable to assume that people knew how to make fire since the moment that hearths are a regular phenomenon on prehistoric sites; this is the case since the Middle Palaeolithic.
Archaeological evidence points to an increasing importance of the hearth in the daily life of small groups of people since the beginning of the last glacial. The Upper Palaeolithic hearth not only attracted many activities in which fire or heat was functional, but also played an important role in social life. The evolution of a simple language to a complex one, involving abstract concepts, may have been spurred by daily gatherings around the fire, where stories were told and rituals performed. The characteristically `modern' pattern consisting of dense rings of artefacts of various kinds around hearths, as observed at many Upper Palaeolithic sites (see e.g. Olive & Taborin 1989; Stapert 1992), seems to be largely absent in older periods. It is in any case remarkable that hearths in `socialized' contexts are found in large numbers since the beginning of the Upper Palaeolithic.
Reliable knowledge about fire-making equipment from the Palaeolithic is hardly available. When studying material from Upper Palaeolithic sites in Holland, Denmark and Germany, dating from the Late Glacial, we noted `tools' of a type hardly noticed before: flint implements with a markedly rounded end (Johansen & Stapert 1995). These strongly reminded us of similarly rounded objects from the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Many sites from the latter periods contained rounded flints, often together with pyrites. Ethnographical sources indicate that flint and pyrite were used in combination to produce fire. Therefore, rounded implements from the Neolithic and Bronze Age have been interpreted as strike-a-lights by Evans (1872: 284) and other authors. In this paper we suggest that at least some rounded tools from the Upper Palaeolithic served the same purpose.

Two ways of making fire

From ethnographical sources we know that two basic ways to produce fire exist, both with many variations:

1 friction of wood on wood,
2 percussion or friction of stone on stone.

With both techniques, the produced sparks or glowing wood particles are caught in material that will easily smoulder. Though many materials are suitable for this purpose, one of the best seems to be the dried inside of Fomes fomentarius, a fungus growing on old or diseased trees. When a piece of fungus has begun smouldering it is used to set fire to some easily ignited material (e.g. thin rolls of birch bark). Friction of wood against wood can be achieved in many ways. Some well-known implements are the fire-drill (often involving a bow), the fire-saw and the fire-plough. Among the Australian Aborigines, men sometimes used their shield (soft wood) and spear-thrower (hard wood) together for this purpose (Spencer & Gillen 1904).
In this paper Rounded flint tools from the Upper Palaeolithic: strike-a-lights?
Upper Palaeolithic pyrite concretions, showing clear traces of use, are known from Laussel in France (Perigordian or Solutrean) and Chaleux in Belgium (Magdalenian). At several other sites, e.g. at Vogelherd in Germany (Aurignacian) and Pincevent in France (Magdalenian), pieces of pyrite have been found which do not (or no longer) show traces of use. The nodule recovered at Chaleux has a groove, probably resulting from forcefully and repeatedly rubbing a flint against it. Such grooves have also been observed on pyrites in ethnographic contexts (e.g. Nieszery 1992: Abb. 2).
In northern Europe, pyrites from the Palaeolithic are rarely preserved. We therefore concentrated on the flint tools used in the production of fire. Our experiments (see below) show that when a flint tool has been used as a strike-alight for some time, it reveals a characteristic wear pattern: rounding, in many cases visible to the naked eye, in addition to dense sets of scratches and gloss. In the literature we found quite a few descriptions of flint artefacts with rounded ends. In general these were not interpreted as strike-a-lights, and most authors have not incorporated this tool type in their typological lists. Other authors mention the existence of this type, but without offering any interpretation. Campbell (1977: 13) described such pieces as follows: `blades or flakes with one or both ends worn smooth by some rubbing process'. He noted the presence of this type in many assemblages from the Creswellian in England. Two blades with rounded ends (`lames a bout emousse') from Gough's Cave in England (Creswellian) were illustrated by Leroi-Gourhan & Jacobi (1986: figure 3, nos. 3 & 4). Two blades with `rubbed ends' from the Creswellian layer in Three Holes Cave were illustrated by Barton & Roberts (1996: 252-3); these are associated with a hearth dated to around 12,190 BP. In a recent publication on Hengistbury Head (England), several rounded flint tools are described, with good microscope photos (Barton 1992: 120, 123), again without an explanation (though there were hints from micro-wear analysis of `stone-on-stone' contact: Barton 1992: 170; Barton pers. comm. 1998). Rounded implements are also described at several Magdalenian sites, e.g. Chaleux (Otte 1994), Andernach (Bosinski & Hahn 1972) and Kniegrotte (Feustel 1974). There are good reasons for caution relating to the interpretation of rounded tools. Many different uses could have resulted in rounding. Engraving in limestone or slate is one of the possibilities. Flints with rounded ends (especially burins, but also other tool types) are known from Lascaux, which may have been used for engraving the limestone walls of the cave (Leroi-Gourhan & Allain 1979).
Two rounded flint implements are known from the Hamburgian site at Oldeholtwolde in the Netherlands, dating from Dryas 2 (Stapert et al. 1986) (FIGURE 2: 1, 2). One combines a rounded end with a burin. The tool was not produced at the site, as it cannot be refitted in a reduction sequence with other blades or flakes and is also a unique type of flint on the site. No use wear was present on the burin edge (Moss 1988). The second rounded tool from Oldeholtwolde is a blade (fragmented because of secondary frost-splitting), whose proximal end is rounded. Both tools show sets of striations on the rounded parts. Among the material from the Hamburgian site at Sassenhein in the northern Netherlands, so far four rounded pieces have been identified (FIGURE 2: 3-6). It is notable that these are all crested blades, which are thicker and sturdier than regular blades; some rounded ends have a borer-like shape. In several cases, the rounding is associated with micro-splintering, especially on the ventral face. Another Hamburgian site in the northern Netherlands is Vledder (Beuker & Niekus 1996), where one fragment of a rounded blade was found (FIGURE 3: 5).we shall be mainly concerned with the technique involving percussion or friction of stone on stone. According to Perles (1977: 33) it is possible to produce fire by striking flint on flint, but this does not work (Oakley 1955; Collin et al. 1991). It is certainly possible to produce fire by striking two pyrites together, as done by several groups of Inuit (Parry 1824: 504). By far the most common technique, however, is to strike, or forcefully rub, a flint tool against a piece of pyrite. Pyrite and related minerals such as marcasite consist of iron and sulphur (mostly Fe[S.sub.2]), though other elements (such as copper) may also occur. These minerals produce quite hot and relatively long-lived sparks when struck by a flint. Pyrite may occur in the form of large crystals, but is found more often as concretions in limestone or clay. Pyrites can be collected on cliff beaches of Denmark, France and England, but may also be found in secondary deposits such as moraines. Pyrite easily decomposes in the sandy soils of the North European Plain. In such situations only the `strike-a-light', consisting of flint, will survive archaeologically.
In historical times, the wood-on-wood technique was much more widely used than the pyrite method. The latter remained in use especially in peripheral areas: by Eskimos, Aleutians, Fuegians, Aboriginal groups in southeastern Australia, and probably Tasmanians. The wood-on-wood technique was applied almost everywhere else. However, the situation further back in time, during the Stone Age, was probably the reverse, suggesting that the pyrite technique is the older of the two; at the end of this paper we shall return to this question.
Strike-a-lights from the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age in Europe
From the prehistoric record of Europe there are many indications for the use of the flint/pyrite technique, but hardly any for the wood-on-wood technique. In classical and later times, however, both techniques were known in Europe. Quite a large number of graves dating from the Neolithic or the Bronze Age contained fire-making equipment, consisting of one or several flint tools and a lump of pyrite; in rare cases also remnants of Fomes fomentarius were found. In northern Europe, sometimes the basal parts of flint daggers were used as strike-a-lights. From men's graves of the early Bronze Age in Denmark, miniature flint daggers are known (FIGURE 1: 1-3) that were used exclusively for this purpose (Petersen 1993: 141).

[Figure 1 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

From Neolithic Switzerland, several rounded flints used as strike-a-lights, as well as several pyrites, have been found in antler hafts (Strobel 1939: Abb. 14; Uerpmann 1981: Tafel 13). Though preservation of organic materials at several Swiss sites is very good, distinct wooden tools for the production of fire have not been identified. Several possible fire-sticks have been reported for the site of Seeberg Burgaschiseesud (Stabe: Muller-Beck 1965: 95-8), but no `hearths' with drill-holes, and Muller-Beck is not certain that the wood-on-wood technique was used here. Several rounded flint tools have been found at Burgaschisee-sud, pointing to the use of the pyrite technique, though these were not interpreted as strike-a-lights; similar tools are known from many other Swiss sites. Sometimes used-up cores were exploited as strike-a-lights in the Neolithic (Nieszery 1992), but sturdy blades or bar-shaped tools with one or two rounded, ends, with lengths of 5-10 cm and rounded cross-sections, are more common (see for examples FIGURE 1: 4, 5). Such bar-shaped pieces are frequently found in megalithic tombs and in barrows. `Ice-man' Otzi owned such a strike-a-light, carried in a leather pouch which among other things held a piece of fungus, probably Fomes fomentarius; some pyrite particles were also found (Egg et al. 1993; Nieszery 1992).
It is clear that during the Mesolithic the flint/ pyrite technique for producing fire was in use. The most important evidence is finds of pieces of pyrite. From several Mesolithic sites we also possess remnants of Fomes fomentarius, for example from the well-known Early Mesolithic site at Star Carr (England), where also rounded flints and pieces of pyrite were found (Clark 1954). Pyrite and remnants of Fomes fomentarius were found at several sites at Duvensee in northern Germany (Schwantes 1928; Bokelmann pers. comm. 1998). Fomes fomentarius is furthermore known from the Kongemose site in Denmark, and from several Maglemosian sites as well. Pyrites have been found at several Maglemosian sites in Denmark (e.g. Mullerup (this pyrite is burnt), Ulkestrup east, Maglelyng XVIII and Svaerdborg I, all on Zealand). A male grave at Nederst (Jutland), dating from the Ertebolle period, contained a lump of weathered pyrite among other artefacts (Esben Kannegaard Nielsen pers. comm. 1995).
Rounded flint tools from the Upper Palaeolithic: strike-a-lights?
Upper Palaeolithic pyrite concretions, showing clear traces of use, are known from Laussel in France (Perigordian or Solutrean) and Chaleux in Belgium (Magdalenian). At several other sites, e.g. at Vogelherd in Germany (Aurignacian) and Pincevent in France (Magdalenian), pieces of pyrite have been found which do not (or no longer) show traces of use. The nodule recovered at Chaleux has a groove, probably resulting from forcefully and repeatedly rubbing a flint against it. Such grooves have also been observed on pyrites in ethnographic contexts (e.g. Nieszery 1992: Abb. 2).
In northern Europe, pyrites from the Palaeolithic are rarely preserved. We therefore concentrated on the flint tools used in the production of fire. Our experiments (see below) show that when a flint tool has been used as a strike-alight for some time, it reveals a characteristic wear pattern: rounding, in many cases visible to the naked eye, in addition to dense sets of scratches and gloss. In the literature we found quite a few descriptions of flint artefacts with rounded ends. In general these were not interpreted as strike-a-lights, and most authors have not incorporated this tool type in their typological lists. Other authors mention the existence of this type, but without offering any interpretation. Campbell (1977: 13) described such pieces as follows: `blades or flakes with one or both ends worn smooth by some rubbing process'. He noted the presence of this type in many assemblages from the Creswellian in England. Two blades with rounded ends (`lames a bout emousse') from Gough's Cave in England (Creswellian) were illustrated by Leroi-Gourhan & Jacobi (1986: figure 3, nos. 3 & 4). Two blades with `rubbed ends' from the Creswellian layer in Three Holes Cave were illustrated by Barton & Roberts (1996: 252-3); these are associated with a hearth dated to around 12,190 BP. In a recent publication on Hengistbury Head (England), several rounded flint tools are described, with good microscope photos (Barton 1992: 120, 123), again without an explanation (though there were hints from micro-wear analysis of `stone-on-stone' contact: Barton 1992: 170; Barton pers. comm. 1998). Rounded implements are also described at several Magdalenian sites, e.g. Chaleux (Otte 1994), Andernach (Bosinski & Hahn 1972) and Kniegrotte (Feustel 1974). There are good reasons for caution relating to the interpretation of rounded tools. Many different uses could have resulted in rounding. Engraving in limestone or slate is one of the possibilities. Flints with rounded ends (especially burins, but also other tool types) are known from Lascaux, which may have been used for engraving the limestone walls of the cave (Leroi-Gourhan & Allain 1979).
Two rounded flint implements are known from the Hamburgian site at Oldeholtwolde in the Netherlands, dating from Dryas 2 (Stapert et al. 1986) (FIGURE 2: 1, 2). One combines a rounded end with a burin. The tool was not produced at the site, as it cannot be refitted in a reduction sequence with other blades or flakes and is also a unique type of flint on the site. No use wear was present on the burin edge (Moss 1988). The second rounded tool from Oldeholtwolde is a blade (fragmented because of secondary frost-splitting), whose proximal end is rounded. Both tools show sets of striations on the rounded parts. Among the material from the Hamburgian site at Sassenhein in the northern Netherlands, so far four rounded pieces have been identified (FIGURE 2: 3-6). It is notable that these are all crested blades, which are thicker and sturdier than regular blades; some rounded ends have a borer-like shape. In several cases, the rounding is associated with micro-splintering, especially on the ventral face. Another Hamburgian site in the northern Netherlands is Vledder (Beuker & Niekus 1996), where one fragment of a rounded blade was found (FIGURE 3: 5).

[Figures 2-3 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

On the Danish island of Lolland, two Hamburgian sites were excavated: Solbjerg 2 and 3 (Petersen & Johansen 1996). Solbjerg 2 produced one rounded tool (FIGURE 3: 3); Solbjerg 3, nine specimens (FIGURE 3: 1, 2, 4, 6, 7). We also identified rounded tools among the material from several Hamburgian findspots in Germany: Meiendorf 2 (one burin), Hasewisch (one piece, with the rounded end opposite a scraper), Poggenwisch (one burin) and Teltwisch 1 (a blade and a burin). Other examples were published from Ahrenshoft (Hartz 1987) and Schalkholz (Tromnau 1974). From the Federmesser site of Usselo in the Netherlands one rounded tool is known: a crested blade. Another rounded tool of the Federmesser tradition, from Westelbeers in the southern Netherlands, was decribed by Arts & Deeben (1976: 26 & figure 20: 65). The Epi-Ahrensburgian site of Gramsbergen in the eastern Netherlands (Johansen & Stapert in press) produced one specimen; the proximal part of a blade is very strongly rounded, over quite a length (FIGURE 2: 7). A few microscope photos of rounded flint implements are shown in FIGURE 4. Especially notable are the dense sets of parallel striations on the rounded ends.

[Figure 4 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

At the above-mentioned Hamburgian sites in the Netherlands and Denmark, no engravings in stone or perforated stone pendants have been found. It therefore seems to be a reasonable proposition that the tools with rounded ends were used as strike-a-lights. It would be nice, however, to posses some independent evidence to corroborate our hypothesis. One possibility is to look for residues: fine particles of pyrite embedded in depressions on the surface of the rounded parts. The burin of Oldeholtwolde was analysed by Dr G. Boom (formerly attached to the Department of Applied Physics of Groningen University). He used a scanning electron microscope (SEM), coupled to a spectrometer for chemical analysis on element level. Boom discovered two minute particles containing sulphur and iron; one also contained copper. These could be pyrite or marcasite particles. We cannot be certain, however, because a mineralogical determination was not attempted. Mr H. Bron of the same department has looked at a series of rounded tools, including several specimens from Hamburgian sites in the Netherlands and Denmark. He found a few particles containing, among several other elements, sulphur and iron. The most convincing example is a rounded tool from Solbjerg 3. These preliminary results are encouraging, and we hope to continue this line of research.
It is likely that closer examination of Upper Palaeolithic lithic assemblages in Europe will produce many more examples of tools with rounded ends. Reports on use-wear analyses of Upper Palaeolithic flint material in most cases do not contain descriptions of such tools. One reason might be that these implements are quite rare, and therefore had little chance of ending up in samples; the rounding often occurs on pieces not classified as formal tools.

The experiments at the Lejre Experimental Centre

In 1995, we carried out experiments at the Archaeological-Historical Experimental Centre at Lejre in Denmark, together with a group of Scandinavian students of archaeology. Flint tools similar to the prehistoric ones described above were used on a range of materials, including hard and soft limestone, slate, quartzite, sandstone, cow's hide and pyrite. Before and after use, these tools were examined under a stereo-microscope. The main goal was to see if use on pyrite would produce characteristic wear patterns. The results will be described in more detail elsewhere. Repeated use of flint on pyrite typically resulted in distinct rounding of the flint, very similar to the rounding observed on Late Palaeolithic specimens described above. On the rounded parts, massive striations can be observed: sets of subparallel scratches densely packed together (FIGURE 5, at right). Numerous striations on flint tools resulting from use on pyrite are also mentioned by Collin et al. (1991). In addition to massive scratching, the rounded areas show a fairly high gloss. Several other attributes may also occur, such as crushing and/ or splintering.

[Figure 5 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

All experimental tools used on materials other than pyrite show very different patterns of use wear; especially notable is the absence of dense sets of striations. It appears that the combination of distinct rounding, gloss and massive scratching is quite characteristic of flints repeatedly and forcefully rubbed onto pyrite in order to produce sparks. Although this result is encouraging, it does not prove conclusively that the rounded flint tools presented above were strike-a-lights; this would require more analysis. Yet the use wear on the archaeological specimens described above is very similar to that on the experimental pieces employed on pyrite, also in terms of surface area, coarseness and density.
Rounded tools from Palaeo-Eskimo sites in Greenland
Similar rounded tools were identified among the material from several Palaeo-Eskimo sites in western Greenland (Johansen & Stapert 1997). During the past two decades, several dozen Palaeo-Eskimo sites have been excavated in the Disko Bay area along the west coast. The sites are ascribed to the Saqqaq culture (c. 2500-1000 BC) and the Dorset culture (c. 800 BC-AD 1000). The historically known Eskimo are representatives of the Thule culture which emerged about AD 1000. At many Palaeo-Eskimo sites in Greenland, preservation of organic materials is excellent. Not only bones but also wooden objects often have survived. Qeqertasussuk is a site of the Saqqaq culture in Disko Bay where many wooden artefacts were preserved (Gronnow 1988); however, wooden tools for the production of fire are absent (Gronnow pers. comm. 1997). So far, we have identified stone implements with rounded ends in the material from at least four Palaeo-Eskimo sites in western Greenland. The sites stem from both the Saqqaq and Dorset cultures. Nine such tools were found at Ikkarlusuup Tima (FIGURE 6); this site belongs to the Dorset culture, and dates to the 1st millennium BC. Three dwelling structures with hearths were observed (Stapert & Johansen 1995/96). In most cases, the rounded tools are re-used `burin-like tools' located close to hearths. We are convinced that these were strike-a-lights, used in combination with pyrites. Pyrites were found at several Palaeo-Eskimo sites in this region, for example at Qeqertasussuk where also at least one rounded tool was present. The rounded implements in Greenland are not made of flint but of silicified slate (killiaq). We used experimental tools made of this material on pyrite, and studied the resulting use wear. Both the experimental pieces and the rounded archaeological specimens show the same use-wear as the European flint artefacts described above (see FIGURE 7).

[Figures 6-7 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

The historical Thule Eskimo in Greenland are known to have produced fire mainly by the wood-on-wood technique (FIGURE 8); only in the extreme northwest did people employ pyrite (Birket-Smith 1929). Judging by our results, the pyrite method seems to have been the oldest in Greenland. No good evidence for the wood-on-wood technique exists for periods predating the Thule culture.

[Figure 8 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Discussion

There has been considerable speculation about how methods for the production of fire were discovered, and which technique was the first. Some authors believe that the observation of sparks produced during flint-knapping inspired the discovery. John Evans (1872: 281) suggested that the use of pyrite nodules as hammerstones in flint-knapping might have triggered the invention of fire-production. According to Hough (1890: 571), the flint/pyrite technique was the `original discovery', gradually replaced by wood friction because this technique is easier to apply, and the necessary materials easier to obtain. Pyrites are more difficult to find than suitable pieces of wood, even in the Arctic. Pyrites from a `mine' in Boothia Peninsula were traded in historical times (Hough 1926: 112). In later publications Hough changed his opinion on this matter: `... wood methods occurred prior to mineral methods' (Hough 1928: 3). The site of Guitarrero Cave in the Andes region is sometimes mentioned as having provided evidence for the wood-on-wood technique during the early Holocene or even the Late Glacial (e.g. Collina-Girard 1998). At this site six `hearths' with drill holes and three firesticks were found (Lynch 1980: 243-52). However, these all came from the uppermost levels, and one of these objects has been directly radiocarbon-dated to 2315-125 BP.
Our work seems to support the idea that the pyrite technique is indeed the oldest. For the European Stone Ages we possess much evidence for the flint/pyrite method, but hardly any for the wood-on-wood technique. Similarly, the bearers of the Saqqaq and Dorset cultures, predating the historical Thule Eskimo, probably only produced fire using pyrite. Both in Europe and in Greenland, therefore, the pyrite technique seems to be the oldest. The percussion techniques used in Tierra del Fuego and Australia may reflect the original tradition of fire-making.
An important question is how Middle Palaeolithic people (including Homo sapiens!) produced fire. Distinct hearths are known from this period. Some wooden objects from the Middle Palaeolithic have been interpreted as fire-making tools, such as an 8.5-cm long specimen from Krapina. These examples do not seem very convincing, however (Collina-Girard 1998). Distinctly rounded flint tools from the Middle Palaeolithic are rarely mentioned. Yet, rounded tools do occur in some sites of the later Middle Palaeolithic, e.g. at Buhlen in Germany (L. Fiedler pers. comm. 1998). Pyrite was found at the Mousterian site of Grotte de la Hyene in France by A. Leroi-Gourhan (Feustel 1973). These few indications are not enough for concluding that fire was produced by means of flint and pyrite during the Middle Palaeolithic, though this is a distinct possibility. We must realize, however, that both the wood-on-wood technique and the pyrite/pyrite method have little chance of being demonstrable on sites with poor preservation.
Acknowledgements. We thank the Archaeological-Historical Experimental Centre at Lejre, Denmark, for supporting our experiments in 1995. We are grateful to H.J. Bron (Groningen University) for SEM photos of flint tools. We thank Nick Barton (Oxford University), Denise Leesch (Service et Musee d'Archeologie, Neuchatel), Prof. G.J. Boekschoten (Amsterdam) and Prof. J. Goudsblom (Amsterdam) for critically reading a first draft. We thank two anonymous referees for their comments. Finally, we are grateful to Xandra Bardet (Groningen) for correcting our English text.

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STAPERT, D., J.S. KRIST & A.L. ZANDBERGEN. 1986. Oldeholtwolde, a Late Hamburgian site in the Netherlands, in D.A. Roe (ed.), Studies in the Upper Palaeolithic of Britain and Northwest Europe: 187-226. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports. International series 296.

STROBEL, R. 1939. Die Feuersteingerate der Pfahlbaukultur. Leipzig: Curt Rabitsch. Mannus-Bucherei 66.

TROMNAU, G. 1974. Der jungpalaolithische Fundplatz Schalkholz, Kreis Dithmarschen, Hammaburg NF 1: 9-22.

UERPMANN, M. 1981. Die Feuersteinartefakte der Cortaillod-Schichten. Bern: Staatlicher Lehrmittelverlag. Die neolithischen Ufersiedlungen von Twann 18.

DICK STAPERT & LYKKE JOHANSEN, Stapert, Groningen Institute of Archaeology, Groningen University, Poststraat 6, 9712 ER Groningen, Netherlands. d.stapert@let.rug.nl

Johansen, Institut for Arkaeologi og Etnologi, Copenhagen University, Vandkunsten 5, 1167 Kobenhavn K, Denmark.

Received 22 June 1998, revised 10 December 1998, accepted 15 May 1999, revised 29 June 1999, 3 October 1999.

COPYRIGHT 1999 Antiquity Publications, Ltd.
COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning

arky
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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av arky » 21 feb 2012, 12:53

morsomt :) Gleder meg! Om du vil kan jeg si ifra ang. pilspisser osv også når jeg lager de? Siden du liker bronsealder :)

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 21 feb 2012, 14:41

Jeg er litt skeptisk til den pyritten jeg fikk tak i .. den ser ut til å være mindre robust en jeg trodde desverre... Skal forsøke å få fatt i noen hele kuber - ettersom det er det som selges online ... ellers er "markasitt" i hele knoller (feks fra stranda ved Dover i England) noe av det mest historisk riktige en kan gå fatt i tror jeg .. men markasitten ser ikke pen ut - så er det ingen som selger den...

Men dette er hva jeg har nå så:

Bilde

Den biten jeg bruker er tromla - så den ser veldig lite autentisk ut .. hehe

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 21 feb 2012, 14:43

arky skrev:morsomt :) Gleder meg! Om du vil kan jeg si ifra ang. pilspisser osv også når jeg lager de? Siden du liker bronsealder :)
Ja :) Det hadde vært veldig veldig tøft med hjerteforma flintspisser til en bronsealdermann .. hehe

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Christian
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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av Christian » 21 feb 2012, 19:05

hehe sweet!

cat: Dafuq?? :lol:
Olav, du må vakne. Indianarane kjem!

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av arky » 22 feb 2012, 00:16

Tja, er pyritten brukende? Men du vet bedre enn meg, så om du synes den pyritten du har nå er bra, så er jeg fornøyd :)

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 22 feb 2012, 10:54

Joda - den fungerer nok. Uansett er mindre biter av pyritt gull verdt sammen med kjuke. Støvet fra pyritten gjør at den kjukefjonet mye lettere tar til seg gnisten. Jeg testet det i dag - skrapte fjon av kjuka, og la det i et rede av hampefiber. Forsøkte så med flint mot en kniv jeg har med veldg bløtt karbonstål ... flere gnister traff kjukefjonet, men jeg fikk ingen glo. Så slo jeg av litt støv over fjonet og forsøkter igjen .. etter bare tre slag hadde jeg en glo. Poenget er vel at finner du stein med som du kan slå gnist av (feks granitt) og du har litt støv av pyritt kommer du mye lettere i havn. Kjuka jeg benytta var ikke behandlet på noe vis mht luting eller koking ...

Og såvidt meg bekjent har de ikke funnet hele pyrittbiter fra steinalderen, men støv .. mulig dette er fordi pyritten oksiderer og at bevaringsforholdene blir for dårlige til at den bevares.

Men jeg forstår det slik at du ikke skal på NM nå i helgen. Jeg skal :) SÅ -Om du kjenner noen som skal dit kunne jeg sendt med de skinnpungen :)

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 22 feb 2012, 10:57

Christian skrev:hehe sweet!

cat: Dafuq?? :lol:
hehe .. dukker opp noe nytt i stua MÅ det undersøkes ... legger jeg et handlenett på bordet er hun inne i det og sjekker i løpet av sekunder :lol:

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av arky » 22 feb 2012, 11:15

Høres ideelt ut det der! Jeg tror ikke jeg kjenner noen i buemiljøet i bergen som skal dit ihvertfall, men skal sjekke :)

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av MalaWolf » 10 mar 2012, 21:42

Arky: Da har jeg fått noen flotte markasitt knoller i posten fra Frankrike :) sender en til deg på mandag regner jeg med - sammen med alt det andre på bildet. Blir ikke veldig mye mer autentisk enn det her tror jeg :mrgreen:

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av arky » 10 mar 2012, 23:48

Veldig kult :) takk!

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Re: Skafte flintkniver

Legg inn av arky » 11 mar 2012, 12:23

Det er foresten grei produksjon av kniver nå, så du får si ifra om du vil ha flere i fremtiden!

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